Stories about Software



A while back, I made a post about using string.Join() to construct SQL where clauses from collections of individual clauses. In that post, I alluded to playing with a “more sophisticated” where clause builder. I did just that here and there and decided to post the results to github. You can find at here if you want to check it out.

My implementation makes use of the Composite design pattern and the idea of well formed formula semantics in formal systems such as propositional and first order logic. The latter probably sounds a little stuffy and exposes my inner math geek, but that’s just a rigorous way of expressing the concept of building a statement from literals and basic operations on those literals. To pull it back yet another level of stuffiness, consider simple arithmetic, in which all of the following are valid expressions: “6”, “12 + 6”, “12 + (9 – 3)”. The first expression is an atomic literal and the second expression a binary operation. The third expression is interesting in that it shows that functions can have arguments that are literals or other expressions (if this still seems strange, think of these examples as “6”, “Add(12, 6)” and “Add(12, Subtract(9, 3))”.

Think of how this applies to the propositional semantics that make up SQL query where clauses. I can have “Column1 = 12” or I can have “Column1 = 12 AND Column2 = 13” or I can have “Column1 = 12 AND (Column2 = 13 OR Column3 = 4)”. When I want to model this concept in an object oriented sense, I need to represent the operators “AND” and “OR” as objects with two properties: left expression and right expression. I also need it to be possible that either of these properties is a “literal” of the form “col = val” or that it could be another expression as with the last example. Composite is thus a natural fit when you consider that these clauses are really expression trees, in a very real sense. So there is a “Component” base that’s abstract and then “Clause” and “Operation” objects that inherit from them and are fungible when constructing expressions.

This was the core of the implementation, but I also dressed it up a bit with some extension methods to support a discoverable, fluent interface, but optionally (I’m still very leery of this construct, but this seems like an appropriate and judicious use). Another nice feature, in my opinion is that it supports generic parameters so you don’t have massive overloads — you can set your columns equal to objects, strings, decimals, ints, etc. It makes heavy use of ToString() with these generic parameters, so use any type you please so long as what you want out of it is well represented by ToString().

A sample API is as follows:

var clause = Column.Named("Column1").IsEqualTo(123);

clause = Column.Named("Column1").IsEqualTo(123).And(Column.Named("Column2").IsEqualTo("123456"));

clause = Column.Named("Column1").IsOneOf(1, 2, 3).Or(Column.Named("Column2").IsGreaterThan(12));

clause = Are.AnyOfTheseTrue(Column.Named("Column1").IsEqualTo(832), Column.Named("Column2").IsLessThan(25.30));

clause = Are.AreAllOfTheseTrue(Column.Named("Column1").IsEqualTo(832), Column.Named("Column2").IsLessThan(25.30), Column.Named("Column3").IsOneOf("Current", "Valid"));


Currently supported SQL operations include various comparison (equal, not equal, greater, less, etc) as well as “like” and “in()”. Expression operators “AND”, “OR” and “NOT” are supported. The utility is well covered by unit tests and a handful of integration tests too if you want to poke around but preserve functionality.

Feel free to download, use, fork, enhance, make fun of, etc, whatever. I’m not pretending this is a problem never before solved nor that this is the most elegant solution imaginable, but it was fun to write, code-kata style, and if someone can get some use out of it, great. If I wind up making significant modifications to it or extending it, I’ll post updates here as well as checking changes into github.